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Quick links:  KHA Patient Resources Order Form

In this section:
Publications archive  I  Home Dialysis Survey  I  Indigenous kidney health statistics & reports

For Health Professionals:
CKD in Australia  I  Detecting CKD  I  GFR Calculator (CKD-EPI formula)


State of the Nation - Chronic Kidney Disease in Australia>
- May 2014
CKD is common: Around 1.7 million Australians (1 in 10) aged 18 years and over have clinical evidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, as CKD typically has no symptoms, less than 10% of the people with CKD are aware they have this condition.

This means over 1.5 million Australians are unaware they have indicators of CKD. The most visible outcome of CKD is end stage kidney disease (ESKD); people with ESKD require dialysis or a kidney transplant (together called renal replacement therapy) to stay alive.

There are currently 20,766 people in Australia who are on renal replacement therapy. However, people with CKD are up to 20 times more likely to die from a heart attack or stroke than they are to receive dialysis.

Currently, the three most common causes of kidney disease requiring kidney replacement therapy in Australia are diabetes, glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidney) and hypertension (high blood pressure).

CKD Priorities Summary Workshop Report
- April 2014  Download full report here>
Resulting from a national workshop in February 2014 in Sydney, to explore research priorities in chronic kidney disease, this report provides an overview of participants, the process and preliminary results.

The KinD (Kidneys in Diabetes) Report - 3 April 2014
Temporal trends in the epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease
and the associated health care burden in Australia

Produced by Dr Sarah White and Professor Steve Chadban at Kidney Research Node, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital & University of Sydney for Kidney Health Australia

Funding for this report was provided as an unconditional education grant from Boehringer Ingelheim. In no way has Boehringer Ingelheim had any part in the direction, analysis or findings contained within this report.

Diabetes Mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease in Australia. Diabetes Mellitus is the most common cause of new cases of end-stage kidney disease treated with kidney replacement therapy: nearly 5000 Australians with end-stage kidney disease due to diabetes are currently dependent upon a kidney transplant or dialysis for survival. In addition, the number of Australian’s who die from untreated end-stage kidney disease due to diabetes each year far exceeds number commencing treatment. KinD Report 2014> * Media>

Two of a KinD (Kidneys in Diabetes) Access Report 2011
Concludes that an annual and simple kidney health test (urine test followed by blood test for those with excess protein in their urine) would prolong lives of thousands of type 2 diabetes patients and significantly reduce the need for kidney dialysis and transplantation.

Tackling Kidney Disease: National Action Plan to reduce Australia’s kidney disease burden
- August 2013
Kidney Health Australia's key election policy document outlines six key areas for an incoming government to address. Each provides a range of initiatives that are realistic, tangible and will improve the lives of those living with kidney disease.

There are 1.7 million adult Australians – one in ten – with existing signs of chronic kidney disease. Yet less than one percent is aware of their condition, sadly confirming kidney disease remains Australia’s ‘silent killer’. Up to 90 percent of kidney function can be lost before any symptoms become evident.

There are nearly 11,000 people on dialysis, and we expect that number to increase by 80 percent by 2020.

The treatment of end stage kidney disease is estimated to cost in excess of $1 billion in direct health expenses, with the economic cost of forgone productivity even higher. It is also ranked as the 10th leading cause of death in Australia, with more people dying from kidney disease each year than from breast cancer, prostate cancer or even road deaths. It is clearly time to act. Read an overview of this plan in Media>

A decade after KDOQI CKD Guidelines: a perspective from Australia

American Journal of Kidney Disease Volume 60 Issue 5, pages 725-726, November 2012, for full text article

CKD Management in General Practice handbook

Supercedes previous version & contains:

  • new CKD staging system and colour-coded action plans
  • new recommendations albuminuria
  • new eGFR recommendations
  • new blood pressure targets

Available for PDF download - order as a hard-copy

Note: The second edition of this handbook is no longer available
Use this form to pre-order 3rd edition>
(Update available 1st quarter 2015)

When complete send form with your contact details to KCAT@kidney.org.au Overseas order not available - download onsite

Formally endorsed by RACGP, the ANZSN and Kidney Health Australia

Renal Drug Reference Guide
Following introductory principles on the use of drugs in patients with renal failure, the Renal Drug Reference Guide is structured into 13 colour coded therapeutic chapters including: anaemia, analgaesia, antihistamines, anti-infectives, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, immunosuppressants, musculoskeletal, neurology & psychotropics. It is evidence based and practical advice, written expressly for the prescriber searching for easy to comprehend definitive advice.

Enquiries: contact the author: Matthew Cervelli +61 408 846 901 or info@renaldrugreference.com.au
Edited by Matthew Cervelli, Forward by Dr Tim Mathew (KHA Medical Director) Prof Graeme Russ (Queen Elizabeth Hospital) and published with assistance of Kidney Health Australia and unrestricted support from various pharmaceutical industry partners. Guide intended for healthcare professionals who can exercise independent professional clinical judgement when referring to content. Not intended for use by healthcare consumers.


POSITION STATEMENT - initial review 2003, last review June 2008

As a result of Initial review in 2003, our Board adopted the following position in regard to water intake

There is a lack of evidence that drinking water in excess of thirst is beneficial for the health of Australians living in temperate regions and not exercising strenuously.

  • to satisfy thirst, water is the recommended fluid
  • drinks containing sugar or caffeine or alcohol may cause or worsen health related problems and should be avoided except in modest quantities.

The daily fluid intake needs are increased in:

  • all residents in tropical or hot climates
  • individuals practising strenuous exercise
  • certain medical conditions characterised by excess obligatory fluid loss
  • certain medical conditions requiring an increased urine flow

The daily fluid intake needs are decreased in most patients with:

  • end stage kidney failure
  • certain cardiac and respiratory conditions

From the kidney viewpoint, all fluids including those containing caffeine and alcohol should count towards your daily fluid total.

POSITION STATEMENT - last review approved September 2011

POSITION STATEMENT - approved December 2014

Conclusion: Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks is associated with the development of CKD and kidney stone formation. Kidney Healthy Australia supports the Consensus Statement published by Cancer Council Australia, Diabetes Australia and the National Heart Foundation of Australia, which recommends that adults and children limit their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and instead drink water or reduced-fat milk.
Read full position statement here>

Kidney Health Australia is a partner in the Rethink Sugary Drink Group
Kidney Health Australia is passionate about reducing the amount of sugary drinks consumed by the Australian public. Drinks containing sugar may cause or worsen health related problems and should therefore be avoided and replaced with water.


Australian Guidelines for the management of absolute cardiovascular disease risk
May 2012
Developed by National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance (NVDPA) after approval by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) these guidelines incorporate and build on earlier guidelines (2009) and consolidate other evidence-based guidelines related to primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

These guidelines are an important step as they provide a single preventive approach to first-ever CVD in Australia. Clinical decisions based on absolute risk can lead to improved health outcomes by identifying people most at risk and directing the right treatments to them. These resources support these guidelines.


Projections of the incidence of treated End-Stage Kidney Disease in Australia, 2010-2020

AIHW catalogue number (PHE150)Internet only 14 September 2011 ISBN 978-1-74249-201-8; Cat no PHE 150; 64pp

This report presents projections for end-stage kidney disease treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation (treated ESKD) for period 2010 to 2020. Projections are set out by sex at national and state/territory levels, and for ESKD patients with diabetes when commencing treatment.

The incidence of treated ESKD is projected to continue to rise, increasing by nearly 80% between 2009 and 2020. The proportion of those commencing ESKD treatment with diabetes is also expected to increase, from 45% in 2009 to 64% in 2020.

Economic Impact of End-Stage Kidney Disease in Australia - Projections to 2020
Read Executive Summary or full report November 2010

The cost of treating end-stage kidney disease from 2009 to 2020 is estimated to be around $12 billion to the Australian Government. This reports reveals the incidence of kidney disease is growing at a serious rate, projected to increase by more than 54% to 2020. Report estimates that increasing the use of home dialysis over the next 10 years would lead to an estimated net savings of between $378 and $430 million for our health system. Annual costs per person for home dialysis is $49,137, compared to $79,072 for hospital dialysis.

Contributors: Alan Cass, Steven Chadban, Martin Gallagher, Kirsten Howard, Alexandra Jones, Stephen McDonald, Paul Snelling and Sarah White. Corresponding author: Prof Alan Cass, Senior Director, George Institute for Global Health, PO Box M201 (Missenden Rd) Sydney 2050 - call 02 9993 4553.

Kidney Health Australia commissioned these reports to establish comprehensive research into the economic burden of kidney disease in Australia. Research undertaken and reports written by The George Institute for International Health in collaboration with University of Sydney, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Queen Elizabeth Hospital and ANZDATA Registry.


AIHW reports:
  *Chronic Kidney Disease  *Indigenous Observatory (ABS)  *Indigenous Australians & Indigenous Health Risk Factors

Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: Australian facts mortality
Released: 24 Oct 2014 updated: 24 Oct 2014 author: AIHW media release
ISSN 2204-1397 ; ISBN 978-1-74249-652-8; Cat. no. CDK 1; 84pp.; Internet only Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease—Australian facts is a series of 5 reports by the National Centre for Monitoring Vascular Diseases at the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare that describe the combined burden of cardiovascular disease (including coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes and chronic kidney disease. This report on Mortality presents up-to-date statistics as well as trends on deaths from these chronic diseases. It examines age and sex characteristics, and variations across population groups, including among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, by geographical location, and by socioeconomic disadvantage.

Chronic kidney disease: Regional variation in Australia
AIHW 17 October 2013. ISBN 978-1-74249-494-4; Cat. no. PHE 172; 53pp.$10.50
Chronic kidney disease is a common and serious problem in Australia and its management can be resource intensive, particularly for the most severe form of the disease: end-stage kidney disease. Rates of chronic kidney disease vary by geographic location. This report shows: people from remote and very remote areas, were 2.2 times more likely to die from chronic kidney disease than people from Major cities. - people from Very remote areas were at least 4 times more likely to start kidney replacement therapy (dialysis or kidney transplant) than people from non-remote areas.

Multiple causes of death in Australia: an analysis of all natural and selected chronic disease causes of death 1997-2007
AIHW Canberra 2012. AIHW bulletin no 105. Cat no AUS 159
This bulletin is the first comprehensive application of multiple causes of death statistics to natural causes of death and specific chronic diseases of public health importance in Australia. Useful for guiding and improving policy for reducing deaths from these chronic diseases and for targeting investment in health prevention. When describing patterns of causes of death using only the underlying cause, important cause information is overlooked. Analyses using multiple cause data complement routine descriptions of mortality that use only the underlying cause and offer broader insight into the disease processes occurring at the end of life.


Patients considering home dialysis?
Call Kidney Health Information Service - freecall 1800 454 363
We offer online education resource site about home dialysis, including a developing area specifically for health professionals - on our sister site www.homedialysis.org.au - queries to homedialysis@kidney.org.au 

My Kidneys - My Choice! Decision Aid Tool

Designed to support patients and their families through the education and decision making process, this tool is a supplement to education and not a replacement. This health professional guide will help you understand how the Decision Aid Tool was designed to be used in practice and contains useful hints and tips, as well as background information. Download this Tool here>

Kidney Cancer Support Service - freecall 1800 454 363
Sister site offers evidence based education for patients www.kidneycancer.org.au
Queries to kidneycancer@kidney.org.au

Nurse Link Newsletter
Register to join our Nurse Link Community - network with local nurses in your area, volunteer for a worthy cause, access newly developed resources and stay up to date with renal news
- use special form to register for Nurse Link>

Join our Kidney Community
Receive our monthly Kidney Community News which brings you clinical and non clinical information from the kidney world and updates on our professional programs - email subscribe@kidney.org.au

 For people with, or affected by, kidney or urinary disease
  Email your query to KHIS@kidney.org.au

National Relay Service www.relayservice.com.au
for those with hearing or speech impairment
TTY/Voice 133 677  |  Speak & Listen (SSR) 1300 555 727  |   www.iprelay.com.au/call/index.aspx

KHA web pages:  Kidney Check Australia Taskforce (KCAT)KHA - CARI Guidelines

Patient Education Resources:  Kidney Health Resources  I  Organ Donation  I  Resource Order Form

Page updated 15 April 2015
PDF Pre-order form - Management of CKD in General Practice handbookUse this interactive form to pre-order copies of CKD Management book when released. Follow instructions on form. Updated 5 March 2015.
Nurse Link Registration FormFor all Nurses and Health Professionals who wish to be updated with the latest in research, treatment methods, care - a monthly newsletter.
CKD Management in General Practice Minimize
CVD Absolute Risk Management GuidelinesUpdated 21 May 2012
Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in General PracticeThe 2nd Edition - released 16 March 2012
Meta-analyses in Prevention and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Volume 23, Issue 2, Pages 355-385 (June 09) PMID: 19393914 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Philip Masson MBChB BA (Hons), MA (Oxon), MRCP (UK)a , Sandra Matheson BSc (Hons), MPHb, Angela C Webster MBBS, MM (Clin Epi), PhD, MRCP (UK)c, Jonathan C Craig MBC
Type 2 Diabetes from a GPs perspectivePublished by Kidney Health Australia 2007 in association with NEFRON
Syndicate  Print  
Two of a KinD (Kidneys in Diabetes) Reports Minimize
Syndicate  Print  
Kidney Health Australia Position Statements & Reports
1st International CKD Summit SummaryThe first summary of Australian CKD, its early detection, best care protocols and resourcing issues
2nd Chronic Kidney Disease Summit - Summary ReportJuly 2009 - Best care for Australians with Kidney Disease - the pathway ahead.
Australian CKD Strategy 2006 - Executive Summary  
Electricity and Home Dialysis - for Renal UnitsANZ/AS3003 is the standard that governs electricity regulations pertaining to home dialysis, both home haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. All home dialysis units should be aware of their responsibilities related to this and other standards.
Executive Summary Australian CKD Strategy 2006Summary - 54 recommendations in priority areas representing Australian CKD continuum of care
Fluoride Position Statement 2011Effects of fluoridation of community water supplies for people with CKD
Fluoride Position Statement for NKF USA - June 2008The National Kidney Foundation (USA) have updated their Fluoride Position Statement for people with CKD.
KHA Position on Drinking Water Instead - Revised 2008There is a lack of evidence that drinking water in excess of thirst is beneficial for the health of Australians living in temperate regions and not exercising strenuously. To satisfy thirst, water is the recommended fluid.
Kidney Health Australia Sugar Position Statement 2014Kidney Healthy Australia supports the Consensus Statement published by Cancer Council Australia, Diabetes Australia and the National Heart Foundation of Australia - November 2014.
Pre-dialysis Education written summaryA national Australian Survey
The KEY Study - Review of CKD & Screening in Australia. Which way to go?Dr Timothy Mathew & Miss Olivia Corso - Kidney Health Australia, Medical Section, Kent Town, and Kidney Health Australia - Health Services - Adelaide Sth Australia
The KEY Study - Screening for chronic kidney disease in Australia: a pilot study in the community and workplaceKidney International (2010) 77 (Suppl 116), S9–S16; doi:10.1038/ki. 2009.538
Proteinuria Common causes of proteinuria - How to treat proteinuria - Managing patients with proteinuria and albuminuria. Electronic copies only.
Kidney Disease: Are you one in three?16 page booklet on early detection and prevention of kidney disease. Electronic copies only.
Kidney Health - What you should know....Important information about keeping your kidneys healthy (e-copies only)
  The material contained on this site does not constitute medical advice. It is intended for information purposes only. Published by Kidney Health Australia. Privacy Policy. For information about website content please contact the National Communications Manager.

© 2008 Kidney Health Australia

Last updated: Apr 2015.