Key points on Chronic Kidney Disease in Indigenous Australians
- Indigenous Australians are almost 4 most times as likely to die with CKD as a cause of death than non-Indigenous Australians.
- Indigenous Australians were found to be more likely to have end-stage kidney disease and be hospitalised or die with CKD than non-Indigenous Australians.
- The greater prevalence of CKD in some Indigenous Australian communities is due to the high incidence of traditional risk factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure and smoking, in addition to higher levels of inadequate nutrition, alcohol abuse, streptococcal throat and skin infection, poor living conditions and low birthweight which is linked to reduced nephron development. Hoy WE, Kincaid-Smith P, Hughson MD et al. CKD in Aboriginal Australians. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2010 August 23;56(5):983-93
Indigenous Australians experience a higher burden of disease - two-and-half times that of other Australians compared with non-Indigenous people. A large part of the burden of disease is due to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and includes chronic kidney disease (CKD). This higher burden can be reduced by identifying chronic disease earlier and through the management of risk factors and the disease itself.
AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF HEALTH & WELFARE REPORTS
Statistics relating to kidney disease in Indigenous Australians
Direct link to all AIHW reports on Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people 2011
ISBN 978-1-74249-203-2; Cat. no PHE 151; 74pp.y Sept 2011 Canberra AIHW INTERNET ONLY
First detailed analysis of CKD in Indigenous Australians, using a variety of data sources. CKD is a serious and increasingly common health problem in Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, especially those who live in remote communities, are at a greater risk of developing CKD, and have substantially poorer health outcomes than other Australians.
End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD)
Over the period 2007 to 2008, almost 10% of new cases of treated ESKD were for Indigenous Australians, despite Indigenous Australians making up only 2.5% of the total Australian population.
If Indigenous Australians had the same incidence rate of treated ESKD as non-Indigenous Australians, 89% of these cases would have been avoided.
12% of Indigenous Australians with treated ESKD have a functioning kidney transplant, compared with 45% of non-Indigenous treated ESKD patients.
In 2008–09, the hospitalisation rate for regular dialysis treatment among Indigenous Australians was 11 times as high as for other Australians.
In 2006–07, over 12% of hospital admitted patient expenditure on CKD was for Indigenous Australians.
Compared with those living in other areas, Indigenous Australians living in remote and very remote areas are more likely to have treated ESKD. This is also reflected in the higher hospitalisation rates for CKD among Indigenous Australians in these areas.
Trends over time
Over the period 2001 to 2008, the number of Indigenous Australians receiving treatment for ESKD increased by 72%, compared with a 41% increase for non-Indigenous Australians
The health and welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, an overview 2011
Cat. no. IHW 42. Canberra: AIHW. See Pages 51-53.
This report a comprehensive statistical overview, largely at the national level, of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and welfare.It comprises a series of articles produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and the AIHW.
Data shows that the incidence rate for end-stage renal disease for Indigenous Australians more than doubled between 1991 and 2008, from 31 to 76 per 100,000 population.
In the 2007–09 period, there were about 243,100 hospitalisations of Indigenous Australians for chronic kidney disease and its resulting conditions, accounting for 44% of Indigenous hospitalisations.
Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2010: detailed analyses
AIHW 2011 Cat no IHW 53 Canberra - Refer 1.09: End-Stage Renal Disease
pp 230-252. ISSN 978-1-74249-152-3; Cat no IHW 53; 2150pp.; 27 September 2011 INTERNET ONLY
Detailed analyses underlying summary data presented in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2010, which consists of 71 measures covering the tiers: health status and outcomes; determinants of health; and health systems performance.
An overview of chronic kidney disease in Australia, 2009
Cat. no. PHE 111. Canberra: AIHW. See Chapter 6.
This report explains what CKD is and describes its extent and patterns in the Australian community. Chronic kidney disease contributed to nearly 10% of all deaths in Australia in 2006 and over 1.1 million hospitalisations in 2006-07.
Risk factors for chronic kidney disease are highly prevalent in Australia and the number of Australians at risk is increasing. Indigenous Australians were 6 times as likely as other Australians to be receiving dialysis or to have had a kidney transplant. Death rates from chronic kidney disease were 7 and 11 times as high as for non-indigenous males and females respectively.
The Central Australia Renal Study
Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (OATSIH) - Released 27 July 2011
The Central Australia Renal Study was a joint study by the Australian, Northern Territory, South Australian and Western Australian Governments to develop. This study developed a range of feasible clinical service delivery models and care pathways to best meet (current and projected) needs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients from remote communities requiring dialysis in Central Australia. The study assessed current issues surrounding delivery of renal services in Central Australia taking into account, stakeholder consultation and activity-based data.
The findings will inform policy recommendations on the most effective and feasible service delivery options and care pathways for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in need of renal services, including dialysis, and identify issues around distribution of these services.
Useful weblinks: ANZDATA Registry I AIHW Reports - Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Observatory - Health and Welfare I Health risk factors - AIHW Indigenous Health
Updated 28 August 2013